@Bear The thing stops the human from making progress in visual and language processing,
at least for me, is the fact that we don’t understand what is to “understand.”
You might be surprised to discover how much is actually known.
The brain is very complicated: this is a problem where the more you know the more you discover that you don’t know that you did not know. I have been doing this for decades and I am just coming to the point where I can see the hazy outlines of how it all works together and how the small parts have to work to support this model.
The parts that are known about the various sub-systems put contraints on how the connected sysems have to work. It is clear that much of what is missing in systems that should display “common sense” originate in the sub-cortical modules - an area that most current AI work ignores.
Please keep studying and feel free to ask about what is known. There are many people here that can point you to where some of the answers you need may be found.