What strikes me interesting about this optical illusion is (1) that the interpretation shifts from circles to rectangles back and forth about every 3-6 seconds and (2) that the interpretation tends to be spatially homogeneous; at least I have a hard time to perceive of rectangles in some regions and circles in other regions at the same time.
Observation (1) can likely be attributed to a prior for temporal change in the human brain which has perhaps evolved to avoid brains from getting stuck in addictive simple states (Dark Room problem) in which model predictive rewards are large due to the simplicity of the sensory inputs. At the same time this prior encourages exploration: It allows to get out of local optima during inference (and perhaps during thinking in general).
Observation (2) seems to suggest that the brain infers two features separately: One feature for a repeating structure (in this case a regular grid); and one for the content of the repeating structure (circle vs rectangle). It seems top-down feedback then also sharpens features for the respective interpretation across the field of view.
I was wondering whether HTM might be able to explain these phenomena, or alternatively whether there is something that HTM could learn them.