The Untold Theory - chapter 3

This is the third chapter of my book the untold theory - This chapter is about how brain stores informations and the Mechanism behind it.

• Introduction
This theory on storage is entirely different from all the other theory out there. Also i wasn’t claiming that my theory is one and only plausible one, rather it may be the worst theory ever created on brain’s storage. And after trying to solve this problem and upgrading my understanding on brain’s storage for almost 2 years, this is the only theory i could believe to be true. I think it would be better if i just leave the ‘believe in this theory’ part to the reader’s will.

Storage is one of the most incredible job that was done by our brain, I can’t stop myself from writing that brain is “storing machine” not “Predicting machine”. I believe prediction comes after storage but not before it. ( It was improbable to praise the brain as only ‘predicting machine’.) And that’s it, let me start -

What If i say that our brain isn’t storing information as information, instead they tend to follow other language to store, retrieve & to make predictions on the informations. The unattractive truth I came to know was this ‘The brain uses frequencies, not the neuron types to process information’. In this chapter i will discuss about this brain’s language and the way they work.

• Inputs As FOF -
Every inputs we receive are of unique kind, and this uniqueness resides in the input neurons frequency of firing (FOF). Its more like a sequence of variation in input neurons firing. Here, input neurons are the neurons that are present in the frontline region where the external stimulus triggers the neurons firing to send the signal to the brain. eg : Eye’s (rods and cones), taste receptors, neurons sensing auditory’s vibration to sounds, etc.

In other words, FOF can be defined as " The number of spikes over the track of the input neuron pathway, that was stimulated by actual external input."

All the information (In terms of External Stimulus) you come to have, has the certain kind of fof. Each information’s sequence was different from one another. A information about any single event is not a single fof in any one track of the input neurons path, instead each single event’s information has huge types of fof that are coming from clusters of input neurons. Different Types of fof in the sense of variation between their sequences of spikes upon being stimulated by single event information on the frontline input neurons.

• Hmmm… FOF! Whats Next?

Dynamic system - A state of the system that changes with time. Our brain as a giant machine that consists of many dynamic systems within it. Input neurons fof act as impulse (or) energies that form these dynamic systems. The pictorial representation of the so-called Dynamic system ( I will be calling it as rings, from now on-wards throughout this book) that formed from input neurons fof is here :

These rings are present all over the brain, and their formation was believed to be as “When the billions of inputs neuron fof arrives in the brain, each individual fof intensity and type will affect other each individual fof,s intensity and their type, this interaction eventually cause them to travel in a certain path, this trajectory formation may be in the form of any shape”. For the sake of understanding, we will go with the ring or circle shape.

• How each fof will influence each other fof ?

The ‘R’ ring is already moving in a circle motion (dynamic systems) in the brain. These ring will never stop running, because we never stop receiving input from sources. And due to this never-stop functionality of the ring formation in the brain cause us to have thoughts,dreams,emotion all the time. And we will see how its actually happening!

• FOF & Ring , What do they do?

Remember, " Rings are all over the brain ".

They all interconnected in a way that incoming fof will not only travel to one ring but instead the fof will travel to all other rings that are adjacent to the site of input neurons. These fof will have some effect to each ring it travels.

In other words, The fof can’t be stopped but they are utilised by each ring along their travel journey. The journey ends as soon as the fof losses its intensity of firing.

This gives us the clue to how our brain works in synchronous with our environment.
Eg., Started running upon seeing predators. { To better grasp this concept, I kind of linked each ring with their functionality like visual ring refers to ring formed from visual input neurons, etc. }
In this example, where the visual fof travels to thinking fof and then to emotion ring and finally to muscle movement & co-ordination ring in the brain. Also, remember its not the single fof that does this process rather its huge types of fof that carries this fight or flight process.

• Everything is settled, Let me bring some knowledge to the table.

As you know, Inputs are fof that creates ring and all the rings are interconnected. Lets discuss how storing works -

The event - A man walks over the bridge

The numbers are used to denote the number of fof coming from the input neuron eg, 2 = two unique sequence of fof. In the above illustration you may had noticed that i have written ‘retrieving already stored information’ - The retrieving process was explained well in chapter 4, for now just know that we are getting self-produced fof from our stored information about the man. I want the readers to think of storing as a process of dynamic system not as a static system. These dynamic system that were formed from various types of huge (amount) fof from input neurons, if the fof was less than the required amount then you won’t form ring and you won’t store information - the reason for lack of focus,learning. Since by default the brain receives huge amount of fof, it is possible to store almost any information. Before we go further let me tell you one thing - As per illustration by receiving (2+2+…n) = 30 different types of fof from both internal and external factor our brain created a ring, will name it as ‘man ring’. This man ring is information about the event that he walked over the bridge. People from dynamic system background will know that these dynamic systems will form again if there is same amount and intensity of energy arrives (FOF’s). To retrieve the information the same 30 different fof need to come to form that same man ring. But Perfection is not the game that our brain plays. At the time of retrieving, our brain receives only 20 to 25 of same fof, but it still creates a ring and we most likely to 50 to 60% of the information which is fine, good to to. These 20 to 25 of same fof comes from = 15 of same fof from external world (someone asks you about the man, or hearing a word bridge - these ‘man’ and ‘bridge’ word act as input and activates the man ring) , 5 from sheer chance, 3-5 from fof related to the man ring that never leave’d the brain as they arr just running & staying around in the brain for no reason.

Huge amount of fof will change the existing state of the dynamic system to the new state, so huge fof is vital requirement to store and retrive any information.
Existing state - A ring that is already been running.
New state - A formation of new ring from huge fof.

The new state is the stored information, to retrieve this information whenever we want. Our brain needs to get the same huge fof to change the old existing state to the new state. (See chapter 4 for more details)

In this illustration, 30 unique types of fof requires to store this information. But in reality, 3 - 30 million unique types of fof are required to actually store this information. These huge amount of fof comes from all different sensors in the body, of course our brain doesn’t use all these fof. The preference to certain fof comes from plasticity and some fof’s losses their intensity along their journey. And it was possible since all the rings are interconnected.

Just assume that all the senses has rings (one primary and many small secondary ring). Generally, the rings are connected in a sence but not completely i,e. A fof from visual ring can’t travel all way to the smell ring (It can travel, but that was contextual). The fof from any ring travel only to certain extent in their path, because their intensity drops as they travel.

Secondary rings are natural. They are formed out of over accumulation of fof’s and their high intensities. They will disappear eventually, they may or may not serve any purpose.

• The possibility of chaos

If every ring is connected and every single kind of fof can change or alter any ring, then it will increase the possibility of chaos. As we know, our brain is bombarded with millions of fof each second and if every fof has some potential to do something then how the brain manages to store or retrieve any information. The occurrence of chaos is highly possible, but our brain manages to lessen the possibility by - Intensity and huge number of fof, and then continuing the new state of the dynamic ring to run for some time (The third variable was attained by one [intensity], two [amount] variables). The running time variable of dynamic system required to form rings was decreased as we grow older, and we can store info faster, due to plasticity. And thats the reason adult humans storing was efficient then toddler’s. In short, intensity forms ring and huge amount of fof maintains the ring formation, these two variables by doing formation & maintenance can run the primary ring for some time - which in turn creates plasticity.

  • the intensity is related with the number of spikes in the sequence and their length of fof’s.
  • Huge number related with the quantity or amount of fof’s.

Sometimes, the chaos will occur but you won’t be conscious of it. Because the chaos can’t be maintained well by our brain. That is to say, we actually conscious of the stored information only when the certain ring is maintained (or) ran for some time. The chaos ring can’t be maintained well, so you won’t be conscious of it, even if it was formed.

The intensity and amount of fof is related with the type of inputs you are receiving from the source (external & internal).

• The Un-attractive Truth - Our brain isn’t storing!

Our best guesswork is informations are stored in the brain. But technically, our brain isn’t storing information, instead it just improves itself over time, the formation of ring as we expose ourself to many stimulus that creates the ring or dynamic rings. Improving or easing up the ring formation was possible due to plasticity and the intensity propagation, amount of fof from the input neurons.

If huge fof’s ran for certain period of time, it cause the neurons to make strong connection in a form of ring ( There may be another form, it is a subjective one). And this connection eases up the formation of ring when again these huge fof arrives to the brain. Each individual fof of the huge amount affect one another in a way to move all the fof to certain trajectories eventually forming a ring shape for the first time, if this same huge fof arrives frequently to the brain then the neurons make strong connection between them making a clear path to travel for the future retrieving process. In short, To decrease the processing time and to increase the storage capacity, our brain followed a principle called plasticity.

Thus storing is not about making connections, not about forming different patterns, not about accessing certain region in the brain. As an alternative its all about the “Certain type, intensity and amount (CTIA) of fof that we are receiving from any source, which cause to form dynamic rings”.

Long-term and short-term memory has to do with plasticity - CTIA of fof that were akin to long term memory of about 20 to 15% out of 100% fof’s is actually enough to get back the fully stored old information. Because as if 20 to 15% initiates the formation of a specific long-term memory ring, this new state of the dynamic ring continous to form without the 80 to 85% of the un-received fof to create a full long-term memory ring, due to plasticity the ring forms on their own with an requirement of just few fof to trigger the ring. Plasticity paves or clears the way for the formation of ring, more like a routes in the map. Here routes are created from how often the people takes that route to travel. Short-term memory requires atleast 60 to 70% of CTIA of that information specific fof to initiate a short-term memory ring as the plasticity is not formed well due to less exposure to the fof of that information. Sometimes, LTM changes to STM where the plasticity’s strong connection changes to weak connection and the ring can’t be formed well, thus the reason forgetting information in the brain (even STM was retrievable but requires more fof about the information) . Another thing to note, as why repetition helps to store complex information in the brain. Exposure time is directly proportional to storing complex information.

• Random thoughts
No specific information can be retrieved if there is not a single bit of CTIA fof of that specific information. Then how we come to have random thoughts,dreaming, day-dreaming? Actually our brain creating specific CTIA of fof for itself, its not like our brain is helping us rather its more like the by-products of using our brain excessively. But the disadvantage of random thoughts is it can’t be maintained for too long, because our brain can’t create a minimum adequate fof that are required to actually form a fully functional ring and maintaining that ring (maintaining requires frequent new kind of fof, our brain can’t do that by itself it needs the external world inputs). The minimum adequate requirement of fof is related to the type of information and the play of plasticity to that information in our brain.
Here, the minimum adequate fof is nothing but the fof that are actually required to change old state to new state of the dynamic rings (forming a ring) to get that information.

As you all know, few rings like long-term memory can be formed off of low minimum adequate fof to form a ring to get LTM. And some long-term memory ring requires higher minimum adequate fof to form that ring because plasticity’s strong connection was weaken. Therefore, short-term memory requires much higher fof to form a ring. More precise to say, the formation of ring depends on the type of information + the work of plasticity.

In dream our brain creates self CTIA of fof from already stored information, but it can’t be maintained as well. So a dream lasts long only for short time ( 5 - 10 mints or even lower than this). And in dream since the fof last only for short time because they are leftovers in the brain, our brain creates CTIA of unrelated information and due to plasticity the brain kind of manages to use this unrelated CTIA to come up with reasonable long dream that is approx, 5 - 10 mints. This unrelated fof’s information is due to random fof that aren’t completely leave’d the brain, these random fof are like energies that will travel in the path created by plasticity. They don’t have any specific information encoded in themselves, since they are energies that are residing in our brain they won’t stop from travelling the paths (connectome) that were created by plasticity. Think in this way, there are 10 different specific rings and they are randomly activated by these random residing fof’s and thats how the unrelated information are retrieved. To make things more complex, these randomly formed ring’s plasticity creates the fof on their own that act as information specific fof to form a specific ring to retrieve a certain information and that’s a dream. To summaries - random fof activates random rings, these random rings creates some information specific fof to activate specific ring of that information(actual dream scene). The random ring creating specific information fof are possible due to plasticity.

In the illustration, the whole process was short-lived because it depends on a limited fof as energy that activates dream rings to run for limited time as soon as the energy loses the intensity and again a new cycle begin as another dream ring activated by other random residing fof’s in the brain. Since there is no ever-lasting fof or energies (because it is random residing fof) for the 2nd layer activation of ring to produce specific information fof for the D1r, the 2nd layer ring eventually losses the supply of energy leading to cessation of the ring formation and that leading to low generation of specific information fof to activate the D1r further, at one point the D1r ring track losses the energy and ring formation stops. If there is still some randomly residing fof as energy in the brain, new Dream track gets activated and different dream ring forms and gives us different dream - D2r. To conclude - Dream rings formation relies on randomly residing fof for their activation of 1st and 2nd layer of rings, randomly residing fof are limited in their energy and in their ring selection specifity. Thus, Dream rings activated at random time with short duration of runtime. Sometimes our illusion of being logic convinces us that we have gone through a long dream.

Day-dreaming, random thoughts are due to the self-produced CTIA of fof of specific information. The only difference here is the information are linear (But non-linear in dream, you know that) and have long duration. This linearity and long duration of information is caused by fof we are receiving while we are being awake. Even though you aren’t concentrating on your environment the stimulus are still entering to your brain, also your morning-time stimulus that were entered into your brain never leave’d the brain and now they stay as randomly residing fof to boost up the random thoughts ring formation. And also in our wake time, there are many potential randomly residing fof waiting to activate random thoughts than in our sleep time, its due to high number of stimulus that are entering into our brain and not completely leaving the brain. These while-awake fof contributes much to this linearity and long duration of informations of this self-produced CTIA of specific information. And this feature was not present when we are sleeping.

S-P.CTIA of fof = self-produced CTIA of fof, that our brain produced randomly. (Here the ‘school’ thought)

CTIA.ex of fof = CTIA of fof from external world. Assume you are getting the input as fof of word ‘teacher’ whether from reading, hearing. This further boosts the ring formation and the maintenance of that ring, in that case you are able to retrieve the information of school you studied and the teachers information you have saved during your school days.

Chapter 3 was completely uploaded, i will be uploading chapter 4 (how brain retrieves informations) and choater 5 (consciousness). Feel free to comment your feedback about this theory and you can ask me any doubts regarding this concept.

Thank you for reading :innocent: :slight_smile:

After reviewing this post my first impression that the idea of rings (with no correlation with any neural structure that I am aware of) is on some levels similar to Stephen Grossberg’s Adaptive Resonance model.
You can see many papers on this by searching for ART. Adaptive Resonance Theory.
As a way into understanding ART replace the rings with a state of resonance. This is also congruent with your attention to firing rates.

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Just seems a bit sloppy. Where are the cites? This is not unlike the wandering speculation of a dilettante. So you tried to pawn this off somewhere else, they wouldn’t buy it, and now you have landed here? That said, this forum is unique and seductive as well.

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Yes sir… you were right… im just a amateur and I can’t convince my myself that its not my thing… you know its like hardwired or something… sloppiness is because the theory is not completely uploaded i believe if entire work is said then it would seem reasonable… the reason for no cites is because i don’t have a academic background on this subject, Sry for that. :frowning:
Can i ask you something? You can just give your opinion…
Do you think storage is happening inside the neurons (some paper said proteins are responsible) or its happening when one neuron connects with another one or its in the patterns that form from neurons impulse?

Also, thank you for giving the feedback…
Have a great day

I learned a few thing about the ART theory, i believe my concept of ring is different from this theory.
Because I don’t believe in competition between clusters(i said these are ring) and also the familiarity between the clusters and the input is kind of systematic… the brain follows no systematic approach… i firmly believe to retrieve any information you need to have inputs (fof - frequency of firing). these inputs are huge they will form a dynamic system (dynamic systems are can’t be memorised - like clusters, instead they formed on the instant time. The stored informations are due to plasticity - neurons just helps to ease up the formation of dynamic rings). And this dynamic system gives off the outputs and these outputs are again fof that will stimulate the input neurons (eg. Rods and cones of eye). I have a theory about retrieving… can i upload it here… because i was afraid the forum management will report or remove me if i upload another one of my work.

Thanks for the feedback sir… it means a lot to me…

It’s time to spread your wings and fly.

If you feel you have a complete theory then it is time to move forward and code a test program. I will wait to see if the results prove you have a viable theory.

This is not an unreasonable expectation as you will note that most of the proponents of major theories in the field have demonstrated computer programs that show the key parts work as described.


Per se, storage and retrieval are trivial problems, we have RAM that beats the hell out of the brain. What the brain is still superior at is scalable generalization: hierarchical pattern discovery process. Try to figure that.

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This is a good question, but I wonder why it is worth asking, as for each of the options you mentioned, there are serious scientists who follow it.

A belief to any of these alternative theories does not seem to be able to bring any breakthrough, a realistic implementation (or emulation) might, IMHO


“per se” is the key phrase.

The brain’s superiority may just come from its unique storage & retrieval method. At least we are certain the brain’s architecture is definitely not von Neumann.

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It’s not just storage and retrieval, the information is being processed. That’s what needs to be understood. Start with Hebbian learning and try to scale it. How is learning different from recording?

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Best advice that you don’t have to pay for.

Follow the footprints of the Wright brothers.


Thank you as always… :slight_smile:

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I agree, but this subject has no clear theory. Its not like aeroplane where we first fly aircraft and then we study it. Because the best way to solve a problem, is to understand the problem. In the course of understanding we form theories, upon matching our theory with the problem. A principle will be established, Thus a law forms.

Processing the information is just retriving the stored informations. The brain is just a storing machine - that gives output without proper analyzing of the output. Thus the creativity and processing the information forms.

Stole my thunder, could not agree with this advice more.

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We won’t, as long as it is a single thread in the community area.
Or you can add it to this thread.
The problem with your initial post was that you cross-posted links to it all over the forum.


Ohh…Okay… I got it… i will upload in a single thread…

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Neuroscience is PhD level stuff. The people struggling to understand the brain have like 20 to 50 years of academic background. That said, it’s good to have fun by thinking about stuff. At this early stage, it’s more about growing and figuring out whether you want to commit your life to this. To figure that out, I strongly recommend grounding yourself with papers. It’s not the same as an academic background, but it’s a bare minimum form of guidance. Without guidance, it’s very hard to improve, and more importantly you won’t get as good a sense of whether you want to do this long term. Personally, I decided I don’t want to do neuroscience, but I still got a lot out of it. For example, neuroscience involves a lot of uncertainty but generally some sort of purpose, and practicing dealing with that situation is useful.