I have been thinking about this for awhile. It seems the the trisynaptic circuit of the hippocampus is a perfect way to encode time/rythm to integrate with other information. It has been discussed before that simple reprrsentations need date encoders to predict the next step. This video talks more about it: Theta rhythm: A Memory Clock - YouTube
I started reading “Your brain is a Time Machine” you might find it useful. It is a bit lengthy for the content but pretty good. I believe it has references. They discuss many aspects of time and the brain.
but very little is known about the neuronal network dynamics which drive information across multiple synapses for subsequent long-term storage
That video was great- I had not heard of theta precession (theta sequences) before
Good book. I really enjoyed it.
The central thesis that not only can you play with time but, you are the instantiation of 70 million years of useful tricks, gave some very novel perspectives. I also liked the way he tackles learning as a reframing of the immediate past too - that was unique to me.