A very recent competing / complementary model of deep predictive coding in the brain.
O’Reilly, Randall C., Dean R. Wyatte, and John Rohrlich. "Deep Predictive Learning: A Comprehensive Model of Three Visual Streams."
How does the neocortex learn and develop the foundations of all our high-level cognitive abilities? We present a comprehensive framework spanning biological, computational, and cognitive levels, with a clear theoretical continuity between levels, providing a coherent answer directly supported by extensive data at each level. Learning is based on making predictions about what the senses will report at 100 msec (alpha frequency) intervals, and adapting synaptic weights to improve prediction accuracy. The pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus serves as a projection screen upon which predictions are generated, through deep-layer 6 corticothalamic inputs from multiple brain areas and levels of abstraction. The sparse driving inputs from layer 5 intrinsic bursting neurons provide the target signal, and the temporal difference between it and the prediction reverberates throughout the cortex, driving synaptic changes that approximate error backpropagation, using only local activation signals in equations derived directly from a detailed biophysical model. In vision, predictive learning requires a carefully-organized developmental progression and anatomical organization of three pathways (What, Where, and What * Where), according to two central principles: top-down input from compact, high-level, abstract representations is essential for accurate prediction of low-level sensory inputs; and the collective, low-level prediction error must be progressively and opportunistically partitioned to enable extraction of separable factors that drive the learning of further high-level abstractions. Our model self-organized systematic invariant object representations of 100 different objects from simple movies, accounts for a wide range of data, and makes many testable predictions.
The authors note similarity to an older incarnation of HTM:
The importance of predictive learning and temporal context are central to the theory advanced by Jeff Hawkins (Hawkins & Blakeslee, 2004). This theoretical framework has been implemented in various ways, and mapped onto the neocortex (George & Hawkins, 2009). In one incarnation, the model is similar to the Bayesian generative models described above, and many of the same issues apply (e.g., this model predicts explicit error coding neurons, among a variety of other response types). Another more recent incarnation diverges from the Bayesian framework, and adopts various heuristic mechanisms for constructing temporal context representations and performing inference and learning. We think our model provides a computationally more powerful mechanism for learning how to use temporal context information, and learning in general, based on error-driven learning mechanisms. At the biological level, the two frameworks appear to make a number of distinctive predictions that could be explicitly tested, although enumerating these is beyond the scope of this paper.